1996-2001 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 1.2. Information before car driving
+ 1.3. Independent maintenance
+ 1.4. Technical characteristics
+ 1.5. Some councils upon car purchase
+ 2. Maintenance
- 3. Engines
+ 3.1.2. Compression check
+ 3.2. 6-cylinder dvukhryadny engines of V6 3,0 l
- 3.3. Partition of engines
18.104.22.168. 6-cylinder dvukhryadny engines
3.3.2. Major maintenance of the engine – general comments
3.3.3. Engine diagnostics by means of the vacuum gage
3.3.4. Major maintenance of the engine – alternatives
3.3.5. Auxiliary elements of the engine
3.3.6. Removal and engine installation
3.3.7. Engine partition
3.3.8. Head of cylinders and valves
3.3.9. Balancing device (the 4-cylinder engine)
3.3.10. Pistons and rods
3.3.11. Cranked shaft
3.3.12. Block of cylinders
3.3.13. Honingovaniye of cylinders
3.3.14. Radical bearings and bearings of rods
3.3.15. Measurement of size of a free wheeling of the balancing device
3.3.16. Piston rings
3.3.17. Radical bearings of a cranked shaft
3.3.18. Back epiploon of a cranked shaft
3.3.19. Shatunnye bearings
3.3.20. Installation of the balancing device of the engine
3.3.21. It is rather live, than it is dead …
3.3.22. Analysis of a dymnost of an exhaust
3.3.23. A gear belt for a drive of the mechanism of a gazoraspredeleniye
3.3.24. Emergence in deposit oil
3.3.25. Engine overheat
+ 3.4. Engine electric equipment
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. Exhaust system
+ 8. Transmission
+ 9. Running gear
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. Body
+ 12. Electric equipment
The simplified formula of system of greasing двигатедя, providing durability and its economic work sounds so: Pressure, Level and Quality!
First, pressure. All well know that pressure of oil in the engine constantly should be supervised during car movement by means of regular devices – a control lamp or also strelochny electric manometer.
Pressure should be not less than 0,5 Bar at the minimum turns of idling (the control lamp does not burn or blinks) and no more than 4,5 Bar at high frequency of rotation of a shaft of the engine. If at the working engine the control lamp of emergency pressure of oil or the shooter of an electric manometer suddenly lit up fell to a zero – immediately switch off the engine, stop in a safe place and find the reason of this phenomenon.
Pressure existence in system of greasing is best of all for checking by means of the exemplary manometer twirled to the place of the sensor. If such is not present near at hand – for example, breakage happened on the way, it is necessary to check, whether there was an oil in the engine pallet, and then – whether the conductor going from the sensor of pressure broke. When also a wire on a place, and oil is on щупе – unscrew the sensor of pressure and, having closed an opening of the trunk oil main, ask the assistant to start the engine. If at the working engine oil does not follow from the trunk oil main under pressure – it is necessary to check and repair a drive of the pump or a maslozabornik. But it is a subject of separate conversation. It is necessary to remember the main thing – operation of the engine without the corresponding pressure of oil is forbidden! Will cheaper reach to HUNDRED on a tow. If after engine start oil follows from the trunk main under pressure, the showing system is faulty.
Check of operability of the showing device
At the included ignition to disconnect a wire from the sensor and to touch them "weight" of the car. If the device is serviceable, the arrow will deviate on the maximum value of pressure or the control lamp will light up.
Check of operability of the sensor of pressure
To unscrew the sensor, to press its case to "weight", without removing the conductor. The pump or the compressor for inflating of wheels to create pressure in the oil highway of the sensor and at the included ignition to watch an arrow deviation. If the arrow of an electric manometer of pressure of oil deviates in proportion to change of pressure of air, the showing system is serviceable. At faulty showing system it is possible to reach only to the next HUNDRED provided that you were convinced available pressure of greasing system.
The second component is level of oil.
To check level of oil it is desirable daily, in any case not less than through 500 km of run. On the cold engine level should be between "min" and "max" labels. The deviation these borders is inadmissible.
Change of level of oil – important diagnostic parameter. If, for example, in "Zhiguli" it is necessary to add no more than 0,5 m of oil on 1000 km of run, an engine condition the fine. A standard cost for these engines – to 0,8 l on 1000 km, at much bigger expense – look for the reason. It is a leakage of system of greasing, wear of condensing elements of the gas-distributing mechanism (the epiploons, directing plugs of valves), malfunction of system of ventilation of a case or wear of tsilindroporshnevy group more often.
That is, the oil level quicker decreases, the engine condition is worse. In this case oil should be added. Never mix the different oils, even the most known firms is can have undesirable consequences. To pass to other brand (firm) it is possible, but before it wash out the engine and already further use oil only this brand.
Sometimes level does not decrease, and on the contrary, increases. It is a bad sign as increase level of oil can only in two cases: at emergence in the pallet of a case of the engine of cooling liquid or fuel. Both that, and another is extremely undesirable.
Emergence on щупе a foamy emulsion of yellow and whitish color indicates availability of cooling liquid in oil and, as a rule, on need of repair of the engine. The same emulsion in a jellied mouth, under a cover of the gas-distributing mechanism or in a ventilating tube of a case is formed at short trips to a cold season and is not a sign of malfunction of the engine. At long operation of the engine in a normal temperature mode the specified phenomenon is not observed, that is the emulsion independently disappears under the influence of high temperature.
If oil level considerably increased, it became liquid with a fuel smell, the reason in poor-quality fuel, idle candles or in malfunction of system of supply of fuel. It is necessary to change oil, but previously to find and eliminate the reason of increase of its level.
And the third component is a quality of oil.
It is clear that such engine oil which answers on an index of viscosity and quality indicators to the concrete engine is qualitative.
Outwardly fresh oil should be yellow or light brown without any precipitation. And what to do with a deposit if it is in firm canisters: diligently to mix and fill in in the engine, or to fill in only a light part of oil, having left a deposit (by the way, this question often met in letters of readers)? Neither that, nor another!!! Simply do not buy the oil having a deposit. Its existence is an indicator of poor-quality oil. The deposit of gray, yellow flowers or their shades is formed in the presence of water. The deposit dark to black flowers appears at excess of a period of storage of oil (that is over 5 years) or at poor-quality purification of base oil.
The deposit can be seen, if the canister translucent and long time is motionless. In all other cases in oil and, therefore, its unfitness to use in the engine, it is possible to define availability of water very simply and quickly. It is necessary to pour oil half-test tubes, to heat up it to temperature 100 ° S.Poyavleniye on an oil surface мены points to availability of water in it.
Approximately it is possible to define presence of mechanical impurity, having dripped oils on filtering paper. If after drying there was a light yellow spot – oil pure. If yellowish or, even worse, a grayish spot with the dark edging on perimeter – oil has a large amount of mechanical impurity. It in case buy fresh, new oil. And what already worked in the engine, it is necessary to replace, when at check the gray spot in the middle is less than a width of the black edging on its perimeter.
The most difficult is check on existence of additives in oil. For this purpose it is necessary to gather in pure dry heat-resistant glasswares of 50-70 g of oil and as much distilled water in which 3–4 g фенолфталеина are dissolved. Then capacity with oil and solution фенолфталеина put in a pan with water, heat up to boiling, from time to time mixing a mix. After boiling of water let's to all "bath" cool down to room temperature. If water solution in oil became reddish (crimson) – that additives are, oil normal. In all other cases – oil poor-quality, without additives.