1996-2001 of release
Repair and car operation
+ 1. Maintenance instruction
+ 1.2. Information before car driving
+ 1.3. Independent maintenance
+ 1.4. Technical characteristics
+ 1.5. Some councils upon car purchase
+ 2. Maintenance
- 3. Engines
+ 3.1.2. Compression check
+ 3.2. 6-cylinder dvukhryadny engines of V6 3,0 l
- 3.3. Partition of engines
18.104.22.168. 6-cylinder dvukhryadny engines
3.3.2. Major maintenance of the engine – general comments
3.3.3. Engine diagnostics by means of the vacuum gage
3.3.4. Major maintenance of the engine – alternatives
3.3.5. Auxiliary elements of the engine
3.3.6. Removal and engine installation
3.3.7. Engine partition
3.3.8. Head of cylinders and valves
3.3.9. Balancing device (the 4-cylinder engine)
3.3.10. Pistons and rods
3.3.11. Cranked shaft
3.3.12. Block of cylinders
3.3.13. Honingovaniye of cylinders
3.3.14. Radical bearings and bearings of rods
3.3.15. Measurement of size of a free wheeling of the balancing device
3.3.16. Piston rings
3.3.17. Radical bearings of a cranked shaft
3.3.18. Back epiploon of a cranked shaft
3.3.19. Shatunnye bearings
3.3.20. Installation of the balancing device of the engine
3.3.21. It is rather live, than it is dead …
3.3.22. Analysis of a dymnost of an exhaust
3.3.23. A gear belt for a drive of the mechanism of a gazoraspredeleniye
3.3.24. Emergence in deposit oil
3.3.25. Engine overheat
+ 3.4. Engine electric equipment
+ 4. Cooling system
+ 5. Heating and ventilation
+ 6. Fuel system
+ 7. Exhaust system
+ 8. Transmission
+ 9. Running gear
+ 10. Brake system
+ 11. Body
+ 12. Electric equipment
Measurement of depression is reliable and rather cheap way of diagnostics of the engine. According to indications of the vacuum gage it is possible to receive idea of a condition of piston group, of tightness of laying of a head of the block of the cylinders which are soaking up and final collectors, correctness of adjustments of a power supply system of the engine and production of exhaust gases, capacity of exhaust gases, a condition of valves (their zalipaniye or a burn-out) and springs of valves and also to check correctness of adjustment of the moment of ignition and preservation of phases of a gazoraspredeleniye at operation of the engine.
Unfortunately, indications of the vacuum gage are difficult for interpreting and results of the analysis of indications can be erroneous therefore, vacuum diagnostics is expedient for uniting with other methods.
Initial factors on which indications of the vacuum gage are analyzed and the most exact conclusions about an engine condition become, absolute instrument reading and nature of movement of an arrow of the device (dynamics of indications) are. A scale of the majority of vacuum gages проградуирована in mm. рт. column. In process of depression increase (and respectively pressure drop) instrument reading increases. On each 300 m above sea level absolute indications of the vacuum gage will differ approximately on 25 mm Hg.
Attach the vacuum gage directly to a soaking-up collector, but not to other openings through which the vacuum, by the channel of a certain length separated from a collector (for example, to openings before a butterfly valve) is created.
Before the beginning of tests completely warm up the engine. Block wheels and put the car on the hand brake. At position of the lever of gear shifting in neutral situation (or in the situation Park on cars with automatic transmission) start the engine and leave to idle.
Check the vacuum gage indication. On the serviceable engine the vacuum gage should show depression of 430-560 mm Hg, and the arrow of the device should be almost motionless.
Below the description of character of indications of the vacuum gage and a technique of definition of a condition of the engine on their basis follows.
Too low level of depression usually indicates a laying leakage between a soaking-up collector and the chamber of a butterfly valve, a vacuum hose, and also on too late ignition or for the wrong moment of opening and closing of valves. Before removing covers of a gear belt and to check combination of adjusting labels check ignition installation by means of a stroboscope and eliminate all other possible reasons, being guided by the techniques of check described in the present Chapter.
If vacuum gage indications on 75–200 mm Hg are lower normal and are unstable (the arrow twitches), it indicates a leak in laying on an entrance of a soaking-up collector or on malfunction of a nozzle.
If the arrow regularly deviates on 50–100 mm Hg, the reason is the leakage of valves. For confirmation of this conclusion check a compression in engine cylinders.
The arrow irregularly deviates towards low indications, or shaking shows low depression. A probable cause is the increased resistance to movement of valves, or interruptions in operation of cylinders. Check a compression in cylinders and examine candles.
If idling the arrow quickly fluctuates within 100 mm Hg, and operation of the engine is accompanied by a smoke from the exhaust silencer, directing plugs of valves are worn-out. For check of this conclusion it is necessary to carry out tests of chambers of combustion for tightness (with an air rating). If the arrow quickly fluctuates and the increase in turns of the engine is at the same time observed, it is necessary to check tightness of laying of a soaking-up collector, elasticity of springs of valves. Such indications also can be caused by a burn-out of valves and interruptions in operation of cylinders (ignition failures).
Weak fluctuations of an arrow (within 20–30 mm Hg in both parties) indicate unstable work of ignition. Check all provided installations and adjustments, if necessary connect to the engine the analyzer of system of ignition.
At big fluctuations of an arrow check a compression in cylinders, or carry out tests for tightness as causes of defect can be the idle cylinder, or violation of tightness of laying of a head of cylinders.
If instrument readings slowly change in a wide range, check purity of pipelines of system of compulsory ventilation of a case, correctness of adjustment of gas mixture, tightness of laying of the case of a butterfly valve, or soaking-up collector.
Sharply open a butterfly valve and when turns of the engine will reach 2500 rpm release a zaslonka. Zaslonka should come back to a starting position slowly. Indications of the vacuum gage should fall almost to zero, then increase and exceed the control indications corresponding to stationary idling approximately on 125 mm Hg then depression should be restored at former level. If depression is restored slowly, and at sharp opening of a zaslonka excess of the control indication is absent, wear of piston rings can be the reason. At the slowest restoration of depression check purity of a final path (as a rule the exhaust silencer or the catalytic converter). The simplest way of such check consists in disconnection of an exhaust path before a suspicious site and in test repetition.
Compression check in engine cylinders
Results of check of a compression in cylinders of the engine allow to judge a condition of group of details in the top part of the engine (pistons, rings, valves and laying of a head of the block of cylinders). Namely, reduction of a compression can be caused by a leakage of chambers of combustion owing to wear of piston rings, damage of heads of valves and saddles, прогара laying of a head of the block of cylinders.
To Raspolozhen of the sensor of pressure of oil on the 6-cylinder engine
Begin with that clear sites near spark plugs for what blow the compressed air (in the absence of the compressor blow sites automobile, or even bicycle, the pump). It is necessary to exclude dirt hit in cylinders at compression measurement.
Turn out spark plugs.
Completely open a butterfly valve and fix in such situation.
Disconnect the central high-voltage wire from a cover of the distributor of ignition, connect it to weight on the block of cylinders. For reliability connection with weight execute by means of a special short-circuiting piece of a wire with clips of alligator type on both ends. Also will not prevent to remove a safety lock of electronic system of injection of fuel on the assembly block that will provide a blackout of the electric fuel pump at compression measurement.
Insert a compression measuring instrument into an opening for a candle.
Include a starter and turn the crankshaft on some turns, watching indications of a manometer of a measuring instrument of a compression. On the serviceable engine pressure should accrue quickly. Low pressure after the first piston stroke and slow increase at the subsequent steps of compression indicates wear of piston rings. If after the first piston stroke pressure low, and at the subsequent steps of compression does not increase, the reason is leak in valves or a leakage of laying of a head of the block of cylinders (the reason formation of cracks in a head also can be). Decrease in a compression can be caused also by deposit deposits on heads of valves. Write down the greatest value of a compression.
Repeat measurement procedure for other cylinders, results compare to standard data.
Through an opening for a candle enter into each cylinder a little oil for the engine (about three full shpritsevy butterdishes), then repeat tests.
If after oil introduction the compression raised, it is possible to draw an unequivocal conclusion that piston rings are worn-out. If the compression increases slightly, leak occurs via valves, or laying of a head of the block of cylinders. Leak via valves can be caused by a burn-out of saddles and/or facets of valves, and also deformation of cores of valves, or formation of cracks on them.
If the compression equally low only in two next cylinders, the most probable cause is a laying burn-out between these cylinders. Emergence in chambers of combustion or in a case of the crankshaft of the block of cylinders of traces of cooling liquid will be confirmation of this conclusion.
If value of a compression in one of cylinders is lower for 20 percent, than in other cylinders and the engine unstably idles, wear of a cam of the cam-shaft operating the final valve can be the reason.
If value of a compression exceeds norm, the chamber of combustion is covered with deposit deposits. In this case a head of cylinders it is necessary to remove and remove a deposit.
If the compression in all cylinders low, or strongly differs for different cylinders, it is necessary to carry out tests of chambers of combustion for tightness for what it is necessary to address in a specialized workshop. As a result of tests places of leaks should be precisely established and the quantitative characteristic of leak is given.